Updated February 6, 2022

Talking about career opportunities in India, is never about the jobs alone! The conventional notion of “career” has caused serious harms to India as we have had more focus on doing the work and less on owning the work! Factually, looking at “career” from a conventional angle is seriously flawed. A pure traditional notion on career is about getting placed in Govt. jobs. And, the people in Govt services have always been considered into good career.

A lot has changed after globalization and especially in the prevailing Internet economy. So, the old school thought is losing its relevance fast. Also, the current Govt. regime has clarified time and again that providing jobs to everyone is neither possible nor a forward thinking. Clarity from Govt. is just another way to highlighting the fact that career opportunities are to be explored everywhere and in every situation. More so, it’s time not to look around for Career opportunities instead to create some.

Yes, Career Opportunities are NOT about Jobs Alone!

The current day interpretations hold the Career to have many dimensions viz. Jobs, profession & entrepreneurship. A career is anything that you can do for a living and that should not require you doing masters in some discipline. Even, a high school graduate doing something as vocation is a career to him.  

In fact, your career is sum total of the various occupations engaged into during your lifetime. Also, all these vocations may not require you a formal training and degree from a university. Thus, from this broader perspective a govt job, non-govt jobs, corporate jobs, small or big businesses, consultancy, start-ups are all part of career opportunities.

Career Opportunities in India With Govt Sector

Career Opportunities in Govt sector is widely known. And, these Govt Jobs in India are usually obtained through Multi- Tier Competitive Exams. Let’s have look at broader avenues of Career Opportunities in Govt Sector.

Sr.No.Major DisciplinesMajor Jobs
1.DefenceArmy Jobs
  Navy Jobs
  Airforce Jobs
  Defence Security Corps
  Indian Coast Guard
  Border Roads Organisation (BRO)
2.ParamilitaryCISF Jobs
  BSF Jobs
  CRPF Jobs
  ITBP Jobs
  Assam Rifles
  Rashtriya Rifles
  SSB (Sashastra Seema Bal
  Special Frontier Force
  SPG (Special Protection Group)
  NSG (National Security Guards)
  Railway Protection Force
3.EducationTeachers
  Lecturers
  Assistant Professors
  Associate Professors
  Professions
  Deans
4.Law & OrderIAS, IPS, IRS, IRTS etc
  State Police Services
  Inspectors Customs, GST, IT
5.LegalJudge
  Public Prosecutors (Govt. Lawyers)
  Judge Advocate General (JAG)
  Criminal Investigator
  Legal Advisors of Govt Departments
  Banking or Financial Lawyer
6.RegulatoryIRDA Jobs
SEBI Jobs
TRAI Jobs
7.RailwaysTicket Collector, ASM, Signal Maintainer, Railway Driver, Goods Guard etc.
8.BanksRBI Grade B,
  NABARD
  Probationary Officers
  Bank Clerks
  Special Officers
9.EPFOAsstt. Commissioner, PF
10.PWDAssistant Engineer, Executive Engineer
11.Health & MedicalMedical Officer, Chief Medical Officer
12.PSU JobsLIC jobs
ONGC jobs
SAIL Jobs
NTPC Jobs
GAIL Jobs
BPCL Jobs
IOCL Jobs
SCI Jobs
BHEL Jobs
IRCTC Jobs
BSNL Jobs
13.ESIC JobsResident Doctors, Specialist Doctors, Lecturer, Associate Professor, Clerks etc.
14.FCI JobsManager (Gen. /Accounts/ Tech/Depot), Assistant General Manager (Administration) Technical Accounts Law, Medical officer, J.E, AG General, AG depot, AG Accounts. AG Technical, Typist, Steno etc.

Department Wise Career Opportunities in India

It would be an incomplete approach to explore Career Opportunities in India without getting to know the Ministries of Union Govt and the departments under them. Every Ministry/department of the govt. functions in a specific way and hence, requires different set of skill and calibre from the aspiring candidates. Major vacancies in these govt. departments are filled up with a Multi-Tier Competitive Exams. However, a few specialist job positions can either lay down a distinct selection process or certain additional eligibility apart from qualifying the common exam paper. Conventionally, the exams consist of papers on General Awareness, English, Reasoning & Analytical ability first at screening level and then at mains level. The written papers are followed by personal interview and typing test in some of the cases. With that said, let’s see the departments of Govt of India which keep notifying vacancy positions round the year.

Ministries and Departments under Union Govt of India 

Sr.No. MinistryDepartment
1.Ministry of Agriculture and Farmers WelfareDepartment of Agriculture and Co-operation (AGRICOOP), Department of Agricultural Research and Education (DARE)
Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR)
2.Ministry of AYUSH—–
3.Ministry of Chemical and FertilizersDepartment of Chemicals and Petrochemicals (DCPC)
Department of Fertilizers (FERT) Department of Pharmaceuticals
Department of Pharmaceuticals
4.Ministry of Civil Aviation——
5.Ministry of Coal——
6.Ministry of Commerce and IndustryDepartment of Commerce
Department for Promotion of Industry and Internal Trade (DPIIT)
7.Ministry of Consumer Affairs, Food and Public Distribution (DCA)Department of Consumer Affairs
Department of Food and Public Distribution
8.Ministry of CommunicationsDepartment of Posts  

Department of Telecommunications (DOT)

9.Ministry of Corporate Affairs (MCA)——-
10.Ministry of Culture——-
11.Ministry of Defence (MoD)Department of Defence
Deaprtment of Defence Production
Department of Ex-Servicemen Welfare
12.Ministry of Development of North Eastern Region (DoNER)——
13.Ministry of Earth Sciences (MoES)India Meteorological Department (IMD)
14.Ministry of Electronics and Information Technology (MEITY)——
15.Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change (MoEFCC)——
16.Ministry of External Affairs (MEA)——
17.Ministry of Finance (MoF)Department of Expenditure
Department of Financial Services
Department of Investment and Public Asset Management
Department of Revenue
18.Ministry of Fisheries, Animal Husbandry and DairyingDepartment of Animal Husbandry, Dairying & Fisheries (AH&D)
Department of Fisheries
19.Ministry of Food Processing Industries (MOFPI)——
20.Ministry of Health & Family Welfare (MoHFW)Department of Health and Family Welfare
Department of Health Research
21.Ministry of Heavy Industries & Public EnterprisesDepartment of Heavy Industry (DHI)
Department of Public Enterprises (DPE)
22.Ministry of Home Affairs (MHA)—–
23.Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs (MoHUA)—–
24.Ministry of Education (MoE)Department of Higher Education
Department of School Education and Literacy
25.Ministry of Information and Broadcasting (Ministry of I&B)——
26.Ministry of Jal Shakti (MoWR)Department of Drinking Water and Sanitation
Department of Water Resources, River Development and Ganga Rejuvenation
27.Ministry of Labour & Employment——
28.Ministry of Law and JusticeDepartment of Justice
Department of Legal Affairs
Legislative Department
29.Ministry of Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises (MSME)——-
30.Ministry of Mines——-
31.Ministry of Minority Affairs——-
32.Ministry of New and Renewable Energy (MNRE)——-
33.Ministry of Panchayati Raj——-
34.Ministry of Parliamentary Affairs (MPA)——-
35.Ministry of Personnel, Public Grievances and Pension (PERSMIN)Department of Administrative Reforms and Public Grievances (DARPG)
Department of Pension & Pensioner’s Welfare
Department of Personnel and Training
36.Ministry of Petroleum and Natural Gas (MOP&NG)——
37.Ministry of Power——-
38.Ministry of Railways——-
39.Ministry of Rural Development——-
40.Ministry of Science & TechnologyDepartment of Bio-Technology (DBT)
Department of Science and Technology (DST)
Department of Scientific and Industrial Research (DSIR)
41.Minsitry of Shipping——
42.Ministry of Skill Development and Entrepreneurship——
43.Ministry of Social Justice and EmpowermentDepartment of Empowerment of Persons with Disabilities
44.Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation (MoSPI)——
45.Ministry of Steel——
46.Ministry of Textiles (TEXMIN)——
47.Ministry of Tourism——
48Ministry of Tribal Affairs——
49.Ministry of Women and Child Development——
50.Ministry of Youth Affairs and SportsDepartment of Sports
Department of Youth Affairs
Independent Departments below
Department of Atomic Energy (DAE)
Department of Space
Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO)

List Source: https://www.ibef.org

So, there are 50 plus Ministries and multiple departments under Union Govt of India which are potential offices for career opportunities in India. Apart from this, there are 20+ ministries in each state and their departments which also offer opportunities of career. Selection process of departments under Union Govt and state govt may be different. However, for the most part, both have fair mechanism of tiered exams to select the most eligible candidates.

Shift in Public Employment Policy

An important trend in the govt jobs that we have seen in the recent years is that govt. departments are notifying many positions as purely contractual. Actually, the shift in employment policy has something to do with lowering down the expenses on salary and pensions. Also, many govt PSUs are up for privatization. Hence career opportunities in govt sector are only to decline. However, notable catch is that certain positions relating to law & order cannot be made contractual nor certain vital functionary of govt can be privatized. Enforcement of law, taxation, defence, judiciary etc. are few such sectors of govt which will always have permanent scopes of employment.

Vocation Specific Career Opportunities in India

Under this section we will list out career options cum opportunities in organizations regardless of govt or non-govt.

Career Opportunities in Legal field are many. If you are a law graduate it is advisable that you reflect on the curriculum you have gone through decide which of area interests you most. Go for a refreshing course which is available these days online, and focus on the niche. You can also consider going for masters however that doesn’t stop you making headway. Broadly, following options you can consider diving into.

  • Judicial Services of state
  • Judge Advocate General (JAG) Officer
  • Judicial Clerks
  • Civil Litigation Lawyer
  • Criminal Lawyer
  • Family Lawyer
  • Labour Law lawyer
  • Corporate Lawyer
  • Arbitration Attorney cum Lawyer
  • Trademark and IPR lawyers
  • Human Rights lawyer
  • Cyber Lawyer
  • Legal Journalism
  • Legal Blogging
  • Paralegal Jobs
  • Academics, Research & Teaching
  • Legal Analyst & Policy Research

2. Accounting Career Opportunities

Business ecosystem of India is fast growing and business without accounting is no business at all. Thus, Career Opportunities in India as regards accounting is growing. Accounting is a crucial tool for business decisions and identifying errors to save organizations from failures. Professionals of accounting helps you track income and expenditures, eliminating errors in transactions and assisting in statutory compliance. The quantitative financial information through accounting helps investors and management altogether in making good business decisions. Career options in accounting are numerous as many different roles, such as:

  • Managerial Role: Accounting Manager, Tax Manager, Finance Managers, Chartered Management Accountant
  • Directorial Role: Directors (Finance), Chief Financial Officer, Financial Controllers
  • Clerical Role: Accounting Clerk, Staff Accountant, Tax Preparer, Payroll Accountant
  • Consulting Role: Financial Planner, Tax Attorney cum Consultant, Compliance Officer, Chartered Accountant, Financial Consultant, Financial Advisors
  • Assisting Role: Company Secretary, Accounting Assistant, Tax Accountant, Budget Analyst
  • Auditing Role: Certified Public Accountant

3. Career Opportunities in Education

The field of education is ever expanding area and the Career Opportunities in Education are diversified. The need of good academicians, teachers and researchers would be understatement. India has huge number of people engaged in teaching and research and replacing number apart from new positions is extremely high. You can work in different roles in Education

  • Govt Teachers: TGT, PGT, lecturers, Associate Professors, Professors etc
  • Freelancing: Coaching Institute, Private Tutors (Online /Offline), Coach
  • Education Counsellors
  • Education Administrators

4. Career Opportunities in Engineering

Engineering is the driving force for growth of a nation’s prowess in automobile, space and many other fields crucial for qualitative change of society. Endless Career Opportunities are available for the students who have possess good application part of their theoretical curriculum. Days are gone when all the bright students of engineering fled to USA and UK. Today the country through changes in infrastructure is offering great career for students. Broadly, you can inspire yourself with following specific career options in engineering.

  • Computer engineer
  • Software Engineer
  • Chemical engineer
  • Mechanical engineer
  • Petroleum engineer
  • Biomedical engineer
  • Electrical engineer
  • Aeronautical engineer
  • Environmental engineer
  • Civil engineer
  • Nuclear engineer
  • Materials engineer
  • Marine engineer
  • Software engineer
  • Industrial engineer
  • Agricultural Engineer
  • Data Engineer
  • Automotive Engineer
  • Drafting and Design Engineer
  • Geological Engineer

5. Career Opportunities in Healthcare

Imagining a world without healthcare professionals is a big laugh. In fact, these life saviours and life givers are next to God. With a population of 1.4 Bn, Career Opportunities in India for healthcare professionals is boundless. Currently, the doctor-population ratio in India is 1:1456 against the WHO recommendation of 1:1000. Although, the ratio has improved over the years but a lot has to be done. The field of healthcare has multifarious career opportunities and money has no limit if you can master the art of your specific trade. Broadly, following titles and many specialities thereunder are the avenues of employment of healthcare degree holder:

  • General Physician
  • General Surgeon
  • Paediatrician
  • Radiologist
  • Cardiologist
  • Audiologist
  • Dentist
  • ENT specialist
  • Ophthalmologists
  • Obstetrician /Gynaecologist
  • Orthopaedic surgeon
  • Psychiatrists
  • Veterinarian
  • Pulmonologist
  • Endocrinologist
  • Oncologist
  • Neurologist
  • Cardiothoracic surgeon
  • Gastroenterologists
  • Dermatologist

Apart from the mainstream allopathy doctors, there are other healthcare professional who also have vital roles in entire healthcare. Their fields broadly groups into the following:

  • Nursing
  • Pharmacy
  • Physio Therapist
  • Pathologist
  • Dietician
  • Radiology and Imaging Technologist, etc.

Further, as the healthcare is an umbrella term for dealing with health, all kinds of doctors be it Ayurvedic, Homeopathy, Unani, Yoga & Naturopathy are healthcare professionals. Hence, it is easy to imagine the vast career opportunity that the healthcare field offers for employment and service to humanity.

6. Career Opportunities in Management

Run and Ruin have very little difference. If you are not running a business, you are well into ruining it. Gone are the days when one single person handled every aspect of the business. Today, business managers are there to see the business operations in different capacity. With a management degree, there are some broad roles (and many specialties thereunder) to be performed such as:

  • Director of operations
  • Operations manager
  • Management Analyst
  • Marketing Manager
  • Sales Manager
  • Logistics Manager
  • Project manager
  • Client services Manager
  • Financial Manager
  • Information Systems Manager
  • Public Relations Manager
  • Human Resources Manager
  • General Manager

7. Career Opportunities in Literature

Literature, in the era of science & technology is sometimes ignored. However, one must not forget that it lays the foundation of some of the great careers. Needless to state that language and Literature is the medium of communication and without it you couldn’t imagine the progress of civilization this far. Stories, poems, songs etc. make the life happier and these creations are mainly from the literature degree holders. Some of the remarkable careers that literature can offer you, are below:

  • Proof reader
  • Writer/Author
  • Ghost Writer
  • Story Writer for Movies
  • Journalism
  • Mass Communication
  • Public Relations (PR)
  • Marketing and Advertising
  • Social Media Marketing
  • Content Writing and Blogging
  • Teaching and Academia

8. Career Opportunities in Psychology

Studying psychology is about getting to know as how the human brain impacts behaviours. Psychology offers you specialize in health, clinical, educational, research, occupational, counselling, neuro, sport & exercise, and forensic areas. Accordingly, there are a number of career options you can choose from and pursue.

  • Psychologist
  • Interview Board Member
  • Counsellor
  • Psychotherapist
  • Social worker
  • Human Resource Manager
  • Educational psychologist
  • Teaching
  • Research & Academician

9. Career opportunities in Hospitality & Tourism

Hospitality & Tourism has been a booming Industries until Covid- 19 pandemic sabotaged everything. However, once the world gets over the pandemic industry is again going to see an unusual surge. Working in hospitality industry doesn’t only offer you a gratifying career, it also paves path for you to be an entrepreneur. After getting to see and work with different aspects of hospitality, applying the same tricks of the trade in your own business becomes a lot easier. And, chances of getting successful as an entrepreneur in this industry gets higher.  Entire industry has four broad dimensions: Guest Relations, Food and Beverage, Tourism, Event Planning and Entertainment & Leisure. With a degree in Hospitality & Tourism you have many options to go for. Sommelier, Front Office Manager, Manger Housekeeping, Restaurant Manager, Catering Assistant, Sous Chef, Travel Agent, Tour Guide, Marketing & Public Relations, In-House Event Planner, Conference Organizer, Bridal Consultant, Casino Host, Spa Director, Theme Park Manager etc are the prominent roles.

Degree Wise Career opportunities 

It is no denying fact that higher is your education level, the more employability you create for yourself. In fact, the degree and formal education shapes your thought process and helps you think in sync with best practices across geographical boundaries. Career101 is covering career opportunities in India under many different heads of degree and courses, for instance:

  • Career Opportunities after 10th Board
  • Career Opportunities after 12th PCM or simply: PCM career options
  • Career Opportunities after 12th PCB or Simply: PCB Career Options
  • Career Opportunities after 12th Humanities
  • Career Opportunities after Diploma
  • Career Opportunities after B.SC degree
  • Career Opportunities after B.A.
  • Career Opportunities after B. Com
  • Career Opportunities after M.Sc.
  • Career Opportunities after M.A.
  • Career Opportunities after M. Com
  • Career Opportunities After MBA
  • Career Opportunities after BBS
  • Career Opportunities after LLB, etc.

Organization Wise Career Opportunities 

Companies be it public sector ones or private, MNCs are the major source offering employment in India. There are tens of thousands of big and small companies which hire eligible candidates. Selection process of these entities are different but essentially, they all require graduates with productive skills. Usually, soft skills apart from a graduate degree is what they look for in candidates aspiring to get a job position in these organizations. List of the companies which create employment scope for skilled persons is huge but few most prominent ones is below:

  • Career Opportunities with Google India
  • Career Opportunities with Facebook India
  • Career Opportunities in Microsoft India
  • Career Opportunities with Tesla India
  • Career Opportunities with Infosys
  • Career Opportunities with Amazon India
  • Career Opportunities in LIC India
  • Career Opportunities in UNICEF India
  • Career Opportunities in Reliance Industries
  • Career Opportunities in Indian Oil Corporation
  • Career Opportunities in Oil & Natural Gas Corporation
  • Career Opportunities in State Bank of India
  • Career Opportunities in Bharat Petroleum Corporation
  • Career Opportunities in Tata Motors
  • Career Opportunities in Rajesh Exports
  • Career Opportunities in Tata Consultancy Services
  • Career Opportunities in L&T
  • Career Opportunities in Mahindra & Mahindra, etc.

The most reliable source to know about the companies that create and offer huge scope of employment is the list of fortune 500.

Career Opportunities in Start-Ups & Entrepreneurship 

The world order has seen a dramatic change. The old notions of career making with a job in hand is no more relevant. It is established today that the jobs although can help you meet your both ends but it is not the best option. And, at this point of time, I feel strongly about the topic of Career Opportunities with start-ups. Start-ups & Entrepreneurship are very close to my heart as the ventures not only provide for your livelihood, they impact the society as a whole.

Entrepreneurship is not only the ultimate form of employment; rather, it is also crucial for social change and driving innovation. The entrepreneurs do not only create employment for themselves they create jobs for many and shape the economy of a nation. The start-ups eventually evolve as big industry and are capable of changing the way humans live and work.

Start-ups that aim to address mass problems, improve the quality of life and people get able to focus more on core work and hence productivity of economy grows. Further, when one industry grows, it gives impetus to many other industries which have direct or indirect relation with it.

We do see community development as another benevolent bye product of entrepreneurship. As a start-up thrives in terms of scale and revenue, corporate funds for community development flows out for community cause. In fact, many great entrepreneurs such as Bill Gate, Azim Premji, Tatas have donated majority of their profits for social and community cause.

Considering the role of entrepreneurship in overall development of the economy the Govt of India has taken several measures to weed out teething problems of a budding entrepreneurs.

Govt. of India Measures for Promoting Start-ups

To create more larger career opportunities for masses, Govt of India has paid sincere attention on promoting start-ups and entrepreneurship in the country. The Govt has taken suitable initiatives to develop an ecosystem of facilitation that can potentially help flourish the start-ups in India. Under its flagship program of Govt has rolled out start-up India, program in 2016 and launched a website & app namely startupindia.gov.in.

  • Govt. has focused on creating India a well-connected mass through internet. Efforts are taken to bridge the digital divide between people. This has enabled the start-ups connect their target audience easily be it from Urban or Rural.
  • Simplification of process of Registration and Compliances in online mode.
  • Listing facilitators of patents and trademarks. The start-ups only have to bear statutory fee whereas govt. bears all facilitator fees.
  • The govt has set up a Rs. 10,000 crore venture capital funds and giving guarantee to the lenders.
  • Tax exemption for first 3 years with policy nomenclature as “ Tax holiday” has been provisioned in the policy.
  • Start-ups are also exempted from “prior experience/turnover” criteria which otherwise is a standard qualifying norm for government tenders.
  • Establishment of SEZs, Technology parks and Research Parks for start-ups.
  • Investors putting their money in the venture funds setup by the government have been exempted from taxes on capital gains. Starts ups also have liberty to choose their Venture Capital Investors.
  • Organization of start-up fests annually where the start-ups can network other stake holders and entrepreneurs.
  • Simplification of winding up process- An ecosystem has been put in place that enables the start-ups to wind up within 90 days from the date of application.

Overall idea of the program is to reduce the regulatory burden on Start-ups, allowing them to focus on their core business and keep compliance cost low.

Other Measures for Start-ups and MSMEs by Govt.

Creation of diverse career opportunities is not possible without MSMEs & Start-ups. So, the Govt. under “Make in India” program targeted 25 sectors for job creation and skill enhancement. The aims included manufacturing growth rate 12-14% per annum, create 100 mn additional manufacturing jobs 2022 and raising contribution of manufacturing sector to 25% of GDP by 2025. Although, several factors including pandemic impeded the progress but, measures are very timely.

In order to nurture, protect and encourage the start-ups and MSME the Govt has also launched certain funding schemes.

  • Pradhan Mantri Mudra Yojana
  • Credit Guarantee Trust Fund for Micro & Small Enterprises (CGTSME)
  • Financial Support to MSMEs in ZED Certification Scheme
  • Credit Linked Capital Subsidy for Technology Upgradation (CLCSS)
  • Design Clinic for Design Expertise to MSMEs

In fact, it is these start-ups and MSMEs upon which ‘Atma Nirbhar Bharat’ and ‘Make in India’ vision of the Govt depends. And, the success of start-ups can potentially fill the prevailing gap of career opportunities for millions.