Updated December 20, 2022
Mughal Period, which lasted for very long period of almost 350 years. This is period is considered as Mughal period as Mughal dynasty was the most prominent dynasty of this period which ruled for almost 2/3rd of this entire period. There were so many prominent rulers who ruled under this period. And we have tried our best to present you each and every important facts and information about Mughal period and different rulers under Mughal period in best possible way, so that you could get maximum benefit out of this article. So, do follow the below article to know more about Mughal period and keep visiting the site Career101.in to get such more amazing topics.
The Mughal Empire, Mughal also spelled Mogul, Persian Mughul (“Mongol”), Muslim dynasty of Turkic-Mongol origin that ruled most of northern India from the early 16th to the mid-18th century. For some two centuries, the empire continued to exist as a considerably reduced and increasingly powerless entity until the mid-19th century. The Empire stretched from the outer fringes of the Indus basin in the west, northern Afghanistan in the northwest, and Kashmir in the north, to the highlands of present-day Assam and Bangladesh in the east, and the uplands of the Deccan plateau in South India. The Mughal dynasty was notable for its more than two centuries of effective rule over much of India; for the ability of its rulers, who through seven generations maintained a record of unusual talent; and for its administrative organization. A further distinction was the attempt of the Mughals, who were Muslims, to integrate Hindus and Muslims into a united Indian state.
It is said that the Mughal dynasty was founded in 1526 by Babur, a warrior chieftain from what today is Uzbekistan, who employed aid from the neighboring Safavid- and Ottoman empires, to defeat the Sultan of Delhi, Ibrahim Lodhi, in the First Battle of Panipat, and to sweep down the plains of Upper India. Babur was descended from the Turkic conqueror Timur (Tamerlane) on his father’s side and from Chagatai, second son of the Mongol ruler Genghis Khan, on his mother’s side.
Ousted from his ancestral domain in Central Asia, Babur turned to India to satisfy his appetite for conquest. The Mughal imperial structure, however, is sometimes dated to 1600, to the rule of Babur’s grandson, Akbar, this imperial structure lasted until 1720, until shortly after the death of the last major emperor, Aurangzeb, during whose reign the empire also achieved its maximum geographical extent. Aurangzeb the last prominent ruler of Mughal Dynasty died in 1707 after that no any capable Mughal rulers came to the throne and that point of time is conventionally considered as the end of Mughal Empire.
Discussed below are some of the Most Important Facts and Information about the Mughal Period (1526-40 & 1555- 1857) related to different Rulers Under the Mughal Period. These Facts are going to Change the Dimension of Your Medieval History Knowledge.
Babur (1526-30), the Founder of Mughal Empire
1.The foundation of the Mughal rules in India was laid by Babur in 1526.
2. He was a descendant of Timur (from the side of his father) and Chengiz Khan (from the side of his mother).
3. Babur defeated Ibrahim Lodhi in the first battle of Panipat on April 21, 1526 and established Mughal dynasty which lasted till the establishment of British rule in India.
4. In 1527, he defeated Rana Sanga of Mewar at Khanva.
5. In 1529, he defeated Medini Rai of Chaneri at Chanderi.
6. In 1529, he defeated Muhhamad Lodhi (uncle of Ibrahim Lodhi).
7. In 1530, he died at Agra. His tomb is at Kabul.
Humayun (1530-40 & 1555-56), the Second Mughal Ruler
8. He was the son of Babur and ascended the throne in 1530. His succession was challenged by his brothers Kamran, Hindal & Asksri along with the Afghans.
9. He fought two battles against Sher Shah at Chausa (1539) and at Kannauj / Bilgram (1540) and was completely defeated by him.
10. He escaped to Iran where he passed 12 years of his life in exile.
11. After Sher Shah’s death Humayun invaded India in 1555 and defeated his brothers the Afghans. He once again became the ruler of India.
12. He died while climbing down the stairs of his library.
Sur Empire (the Second Afghan Empire): 1540-1555
13. The second Afghan Empire was Sur Empire which lasted for the period of 15 years.
14. The foundation of Sur dynasty in India was laid by Sher Shah in 1540.
Sher Shah (1540-1555), the Founder of the Sur Empire
15. He was the son of Hasan Khan, the Jagirdar of Sasaram. Ibrahim Lodhi transferred his father’s jagir to him.
16. In 1527-28, he joined Babur’s service and then returned to South Bihar as deputy governor and guardigan of the minor king Jalal Khan Lohani, son of Bahar Khan Lohani.
17. Sher Shah usurps throne as Hazarat-i-Ala. He gained Chunar by Marrying Lad Malika, the widow of governor of Chunar fort.
18. In 1539, he defeated Humayun in the battle of Chausa and assumed the title Sher Shah as emperor.
19. In1540, he defeated Humayun in the battle of Kannauj / Bilgram and annexed Kannauj.
Akbar (1556-1605), the Greatest of the Mughal Emperors
20. Akbar, the eldest son of Humayun, ascended the throne under the title of Jalaluddin Mohhamad Akbar Badshah Ghaji at the young age of 14 at Kalanaur, Punjab and his tutor Bairam Khan was appointed as the regent.
21. Second Battle of Panipat (5 Nov, 1556) was fought between Hemu (the Hindu General of Muhhamad Adil Shah) and Bairam Khan (the regent of Akbar). Hemu was defeated, captured and slain by Bairam Khan.
22. This war ended the Mughal-Afghan contest for the throne of Delhi in the favour of Mughals and enabled Akbar to reoccupy Delhi & Agra.
23. Akbar ended the regency of Bairam Khan in1560 and at the age of 18 assumed the reigns of the kingdom.
24. Akbar was under the influence of Mahan Anga & Adham Khan Junta from 1560 to 1562.
25. In his bid to expand his empire he conquered various provincial states.
26. The Rajputa kindom of Mewar put up a fierce defence under Rana Uday Singh (1537-72) and his son Rana Pratp (1572-97).
27. Akbar tried to win over Rajputa wherever possible and inducted Rajputa kings into Mughal service and treated them at par with Mughal nobility. By marrijing Manamati, daughter of Bharmal / Biharimal (Kutchhawaha Rajput ruler of Amer, Capital-Jaipur) in 1562. Akbar displayed his secular policy with the Hindus. Most of the Rajputa Kings recognized the supremacy of Akbar except Rana Pratap singh and his son Amar Singh (Sisodiya Rajput of Mewar, Capital-Chittor).
Jahangir (1605-27), the Fourth Mughal Emperor
28. Salim, son of Akbar, came to the throne after Akbar’s death in 1605. He issued 12 ordinances.
29. He is known for his strict administration of justice. He established Zanjir-i-Adal (Chain of Justice) at Agra Fort for the seekers of royal justice.
30. In 1611, Jahangir married Miha-un-Nisa, widow of Sher Afghan, a Persian nobleman of Bengal. Later on she was given the title Nurjahan. Nurjahan exercised tremendous influence over the state affairs. She was made the official Padshah Begum.
31. Jahangir issued coins jointly in Nurjahan’s name and his own.
32. Jahangir also married Jodhabai of Marvar a Kachhwaha Princess.
Shahjahan (1628-58), the Fifth Emperor of the Mughal Empire
33. Mother’s name, Jagat Gosai / Jodha Bai (daughter of Raja Jagat Singh).
34. Shahjahan ascended the throne in 1628 after his father’s death.
35. He was best known for his Deccan and foreign policies.
36. The first thing that he had to face was revolt in Bundelkhand (Jujhar Singh Bundela of Orchha: 1628-35) and Deccan (Khan-i-Jahan Lodhi, the governor of Deccan: 1629-31)
37. Three years after his accession, his beloved wife Mumtaz Mahal (original name- Arzumand Bano) died in 1631. To perpetuate her memory he built the Taj Mahal at Agra.
38. In 1631-32, he defeated Portuguese.
Aurangzeb (1658-1707), the Sixth Emperor of the Mughal Empire
39. Aurangzeb defeated Dara at Dharmat (1658), Samugarh (1658) & Deorai in which Samugarh was decisive one and Deorai was last one.
40. After victory, Aurangzeb was crowned at Delhi under the title Alamgir. He ruled for 50 years till his death in February, 1707 in Ahmadanagar.
41. During the first 23 years of the rule (1658-81) Aurangabad concentrated on North India. During this period the Marathas under Shivaji rose to power and were to reckon.
42. Aurangzeb captured Guru Teg Bahadur, the 9th Guru of Sikhs in 1675 and executed him when he refused to embrace Islam. The 10th and Last Sikh Guru, Guru Govind Singh, son of Guru Teg Bahadur, organized his followers into militant force called Khalsa to avenge the murder of his father. Guru Gobind Singh was, however murdered in 1708 by an Afghan at Nander in Deccan. Banda Bairagi, the militant successor of Guru Gobind Singh continued the war against Mughals.
43. Bahadur Shah I, Jahandar Shah, Farrukh Siyar, Muhhamad Shah, Ahmed Shah, Alamgir II and Shah Alam II were the prominent rulers of later Mughal period.