Poverty is a situation of lacking material possession or income for a person’s needs. It comprises many dimensions encompasses the inability to acquire the basic goods and services necessary for the survival with dignity, the low levels of health and education, poor access to clean water and sanitation, lack of voice, insufficient capacity and opportunities, and inadequate physical security to better one’s life. Poverty impacts on families, children and the whole of society and even, its consequences are far-reaching. It leads to low educational attainment, unemployment, impact on mental and physical health and many more.
Poverty is one of the main problems of India that is existed for a long time. About 40% of India’s population is in below poverty line. There have been many efforts to define poverty, but the broadest classification is deprivation of essential elements that are needed for survival with dignity. Deprivation can be defined as the consequence of a lack of income and other resources, which in combination can be seen as living in poverty. The relative deprivation approach to poverty examines the indicators of deprivation, these can then be related back to income levels and resources.
Copenhagen declaration describes poverty as “a condition characterised by severe deprivation of basic needs, including food, safe drinking water, shelter and sanitation facilities.” Therefore, it is a multi-facet concept that incorporates economic deprivation along with deprivation of opportunities as well as deprivation of basic needs such as health, education, housing etc.
The following manner to eradicate poverty-
Reducing Health Deprivation-
Absence of a healthy body and mind results in low productivity and enhanced poverty. So, it is required to reduce the deprivation of Health care facilities. Holistic healthcare facilities will decrease mortality and morbidity which will lead to a more productive workforce and therefore, to higher productivity, growth and prosperity. Several developed and developing economies (such as the UK and Cuba respectively) have state-sponsored universal healthcare. In India, National Health Mission, National Rural Health Mission, National Urban Health Mission, Rashtriya Swastya Bima Yojana etc. are good examples of initiatives for reducing the deprivation of healthcare facilities.
Mitigating Education Deprivation-
Absence of access to education (primary, secondary and technical leads to uneducated, unaware and the ignorant is less exposed to opportunities and measures towards poverty education. Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (SSA), National Scholarships, Scholarships for Minorites, RMSA etc. are some good government schemes which try to make education accessible.
Reducing Skill and Employment Deprivation-
Absence of employment, jobless growth, and seasonal employment is a cause of poverty and results in a pattern of persistent migration that increases poverty due to the high cost of living. Low quality of skill development results in absence of choices in work and increases poverty in the long-term. Pradhan Mantri Jan-Dhan Yojana (PMJDY), Pradhan Mantri Kaushal Vikas Yojana (PMKVY), Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (MNREGA), Standardised Testing and Reporting (STAR), Udaan etc are targeted towards addressing the issue.
Eliminating Social Security Deprivation-
Absence of insurance, pension schemes, provident fund, especially in the unorganised sector results in low saving rate and amplifies poverty. APY, Jeevan Jyoti, PMFBY etc work towards bridging these gaps.
Reducing Resource Deprivation-
Even today caste and societal stratification act as a barrier to pursue the profession of choice and access to relevant resources in rural areas. DBT and Capacity building towards creating supportive infrastructure will help to reduce poverty.
Deprivation of Knowledge-
By increasing awareness about common diseases, political awareness, and engendering behavioural change in matters such as sanitation, savings and exercising regularly will eradicate the poverty and lead to better social life. ‘Nudge units’ are being established by various governments in order to devise methods to bring about behavioural change.
Therefore, the following are the various deprivation which if removed will itself eradicate poverty. Deprivation of all the basic amenities for survival leads to poverty and deprivation perpetuates poverty. The government policies should aim to break this chain. The government can remove deprivation with suitable steps.
Targeting the Beneficiary- Poverty can be eradicated only after targeting the people who need the basic requirement. By identifying the beneficiaries, we can ensure that schemes and measures benefit the needy and do not go in waste.
Reduce paperwork and procedures- Many government schemes or initiatives are usually stuck up in paperwork and red tape. This reduces its efficiency and makes it worthless. Therefore, it is required to eliminate constraint so that people benefit from the services without having to put excessive efforts.
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