Amazing Points on Sangam Period (1st – 3rd Century AD)- A Must Read Points

Updated December 20, 2022

When we talk about Sangam Period (1st – 3rd Century AD) there are many important and Interesting facts to discuss on. As we start going through Sangam Period then only we come to know that it is endless. So, our team working hard to bring you such important interesting facts in best possible way that could help you in exams to score your desired goals. So, do follow the below given article and visit the site to know such more facts which are very important from examination perspectives.

The Sangam Period / age lasted between  1st – 3rd Century AD. ‘Sangam’ is the Tamil form of Sanskrit word “Sangha” meaning a group of persons or an association. The Tamil Sangam was an Academy of poets and bards, who flourished in three different periods and in different places under the patronage of the Tamil kings.

The Sangam Age was the period of history of ancient Tamil Nadu and Kerala and parts of Sri Lanka (then known as Tamilakam) spanning from 6th century BCE to 3rd century CE. It was named after the famous Sangam academies of poets and scholars centered in the city of Madurai.

In Old Tamil language, the term Tamilakam referred to the whole of the ancient Tamil-speaking area, corresponding roughly to the area known as southern India today, consisting of the territories of the present-day Indian states of Tamil Nadu, Kerala, parts of Andhra Pradesh, parts of Karnataka and northern Sri Lanka, also known as Eelam.

Some of the Amazing facts on the Sangam Period (1st – 3rd Century AD) related to Three Early Kingdoms, Sangam Administration and Sangam Literature. Points You Must Know from Examination Point of View.

Three early Kingdoms

1. List of three early kingdoms is presented in the table below along with their Emblem, Capital, First ruler and Famous ruler.

KingdomEmblemCapitalFirst RulerFamous Ruler
The CheraBowVanjji / Karayur;


Main Ports: Muzris &Tondi

UdiyangeralSeguttuvan (Red Chera)
The CholaTigerUraiaur-Inland capital-famous centre for cotton trade;


Pushar / Kaveripattanam-coastal capital-main port

The PandyaFishMadurai-Inland Capital-venue of 1st & 3rd Sangam;


Korkai / Colchoi-Coastal Capital-famous for pearls


The Cheras

2. The Chera country occupied the portion of both Kerala & Tamil Nadu.

3. The Capital of Cheras was Vanjji.

4. Its main port were Muzris and Tondi.

5. The Romans set up two regiment at Muzris (identical with Cranganore) in Chera country. They also built a temple of Augustus at Muzris.

6. One of the earliest and better known among Chera ruler was Udiyangeral. It is said that he fed both the armies of Kurukshetra war and so earned the title Udiyangeral.

7. The greatest of Chera king, however, was Senguttuvan or Red Chera. It is said that he invaded North and even crossed the Ganges.

8. He was also the founder of the famous Pattini cult related to worship of goddess of chastity-kannagi.

The Cholas

9. The Chola kingdom called as Cholamandlam was situated to the North-East of Pandya kingdom between Pennar & Vellar rivers.

10. The Chola kingdom corresponded to modern Tanjore & Tiruchirappalli districts.

11. Its inland capital was Uraiyaur, a place famous for cotton trade. One of the main sources of wealth for cholas was trade in cotton cloth.

12. Puhar identical with Kaveripattanam was main port of Cholas and served as alternative capital of Cholas.

13. The earliest known Chola king was Elara who conquered Sri Lanka and ruled over it for nearly 50 years.

14. Their greatest king was Karikala (Man with charred leg) who founded Puhar (Kaveripattanam) and constructed 160 km embankment along the Kaveri river with the help of 120,000 sri Lankan slaves.

15. they maintained an efficient navy.

16. The Cholas were wiped out in the attack of Pallavas from North.

The Pandyas

17. The Pandyas were first mentioned by Megasthenese who said their kingdom was famous for pearl.

18. The Pandya territory included modern districts of tirunelvelli, Ramand and Madurai in Tamil Nadu. It had its capital at Madurai, situated on the banks of Vaigai river.

19. The Pandya king profited from trade with roman empire and sent emissaries to Roman emperor Augustus & Trojan.

20. The Pandyas find mention in the Ramayana & Mahabharata.

21. The earliest known Pandyan ruler was Mudukudumi.

Sangam Administration

22. The king was the centre of administration. He was called Ko, Mannam, Vendan Korravan or Iraivan.

23. Avai was the court of crowned monarch.

24. The greatest Pandya king, Nendujelian, accused Kovalan of theft. As a result, the city of Madurai was laid under a curse by Kannagi (kovalan’s wife)

25. Important officials (Panchmahasabha) were: (I). Amaichchar (Ministers), (II). Purohitar (Priests), (III). Dutar (Envoys), (IV). Senapatiyar (Commander), (V). Orar (Spies).

26. The Kingdom was divided into Mandalam / Nadu (Province), Ur (town), Perur (big village), Sirur (Small village).

27. Pattinam (Name of coastal town), Puhar (Harbor areas), Cheri (Suburb of town).

28. Revenues Administration of Sangam Period were Karai (Land Tax), Irai (tribute paid by feudatories and booty collected in war), Ulgu (Custom duties), Iravu (Extra demand or forced gift), Veriyam (A well known unit of territory yielding tax), Variyar (Tax collector).

29. It is said that in chola territory, watered by Kaveri, the space in which an elephant could lie down produced enough to feed seven persons. It implies the land were very fertile with irrigation facilities.

Sangam Literature

30. Sangam was an assembly of Tamil poets held under royal Patronage of Pandyan kings in Madurai. According to tradition, the assembly lasted for 9,990 years and was attended by 8,598 poets and 197 Pandyan kings.

31. The first Sangam was attended by Gods and legendary sages and all its work have perished.

32. Of the second Sangam, the only surviving work is Tolkappiyam, an early work on Tamil grammar written by Tolakapiyyar.

33. Of the third Sangam, the mostly works are surviving. These are Ettutogai (i.e. 8 enthologies), Pattupattu (i.e. 10 idylls), Patinenkilakanakku (i.e. 18 didatical texts) etc.

34. Ettutogai & Pattupattu are called Melakanakku (18 major works) and narrative in form. Patinenkanakku is called Kilakanakku (18 minor works) and didactive in form.

35. Kural and Muppal, a part of Patinenkanakku & written by Tiruvalluvar is called ‘The Bible of Tamil Land’. It is treatise on polity, ethics & social norms.

36. The Epics: Silappadikaram, Manimekalai, Sivaka Sindamani etc.

37. Silappadikaram (the story of Anklet) was written by Ilango Adigal, it deals with the story of Kovalan and Madhavi. It is a sequel of silappadikaram and strongly tinged with Buddism.

38. Sivaga Sindamani (Jivaka Chintamani) was written by Jain Tiruttakrdevas & strongly tinged with Jainism.

39. Bharatam was written by Perudevanar.

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