Important and Interesting Points on The Moderate Phase of The Indian National Movement- Everything You should Know about

Updated December 20, 2022

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The Moderate Phase of The Indian National Movement/Congress

Group of political leaders in India active between 1885 and 1907 known as moderates and the time period from 1885 to 1905 can be called the ‘Moderate Phase’. Their emergence marked the beginning of the organized national movement in India in the latter half of the 19th century as a result of various factors like western education, socio-religious reforms, British policies and so on. In 1885, the Indian National Congress was formed which played a significant role in India’s freedom movement.

Some of the important moderate leaders were Pheroz Mehta, Dadabhai Naoroji, R.C. Dutt, Gopal Krishna Gokhale, S.N. Banerjee and A.O. Hume. With members of the group drawn from educated middle-class professionals including lawyers, teachers and government officials, many of them were educated in England. They are known as “Early Nationalists” because they believed in demanding reforms while adopting constitutional and peaceful means to achieve their aims. The Indian National Congress/Movement underwent three different phases, Moderate Phase (1885 –1905) Extremist Phase (1905 – 1920) Gandhian Phase (1920-1947) and leaders of each period had a different mindset to fight against the British Rule. One which we are talking about is Moderate Phase.

Discussed below are Some Important and Interesting Points on “The Moderate Phase of The Indian National Movement” regarding Important Organizations before Congress, the Indian National Congress, Important Moderate Leaders, and so on.

Important Organizations before Congress

1.List of Important organizations is presented below in the table along with their place, year and founders.

Landholders SocietyCalcutta1837Dwarka Nath Tagore
British India SocietyLondon1839William Adam
British India Association (Result of the Merger of 1 & 2)Calcutta1851Devendra Nath Tagore
Madras Native AssociationMadras1852C.Y. Mudaliar
Bombay AssociationBombay1852Jagannath Shanker Sheth
East India AssociationLondon1866Dadabhai Naoroji
Poona sarvajanik SabhaPoona1870S.H. Chiplunkar, G.V. Joshi, M.G. ranade
Indian SocietyLondon1872Anand Mohan Bose
Indian LeagueCalcutta1875Shishir kumar Ghosh
Indian AssociationCalcutta1876Surendra Nath Bannerji & Anand Mohan Bose
Indian National ConferenceCalcutta1883-do-
Madras Mahajan SabhaMadras1884P. Rangia Naydu, V. Raghvachari, Anand Charlu, G.S. Aiyer
Bombay Presidency AssociationBombay1885Ferozshah Mehta, K.T. Tailanga & Badruddin Tyebji

Indian National Congress (I.N.C.): Bombay 1885 (A.O. Hume)

2. The Indian National Union was formed in 1884 by A.O. Hume, an Englishman and a retired Civil Servant, in association with various national leaders who called for conference in Pune in December 1885.

3. The conference received the unanimous support of all Indian leaders, but the venue was shifted to Bombay for various reason (esp. outbreak of Cholera at Pune).

4. Further, the leaders decided to rename the Indian National union as Indian National congress.

5. The first session of the Indian National Congress was held at Gokuldas Tejpal Sanskrit College in Bombay under the presidency of W.C. Bannerji, a veteran lawyer of Calcutta.

6. It was attended by 72 delegates from all over India.

7. From 1885 onwards the INC met every year and its cause spread rapidly among middle class Indians.

8. With the foundation of INC in 1885, the struggle for India’s independence was launched in small, hesitant and mild but organized manner.

9. The first two decade of INC are described in history as those moderate demands and a sense of confidence in British Justice and generosity. Their aim was not to be aggressive for attaining independence lest the British should suppress this. This resulted in Indian Council Act. In 1892 which allowed some members to be indirectly elected by Indians but keeping the official majority intact.

Some Important Moderate Leaders

10. Dada bhai Naoroji, A.O. Hume, Badruddin Tyebji, M.G. Ranade, W.C. Bannerji, Ferozshah Mehta, SSurendra Nath Bannerji, C. Shankaran Naiyar, madan Mohan Malviya, V. S. Srinivas Shastri, Tej Bahadur Sapru, Gopal Krishan Gokhale, Anand Mohan Bose, E. Dinesh Wacha, Ras Bihari Ghosh, Mohan Lal Ghosh, P. Anand Charlu, C.Y. Chintamani, R.C. Dutt, S. Subramanyam Aiyer, K.T. Tailang, Madhusudhan Das, Rahimtulla M. Sayani.

Selective Opinions about INC

11. List of Selective Opinions about INC is presented below in the table along with the personalities.

‘INC represents only a microscopic-minorities’Lord Dufferin {(1884-88) Contemporary Viceroy}
‘The Congress is tottering to its fall, and one of my great ambitions, while in India, is to assist it to a peaceful demise’Lord Curzon {(1899-1905) Viceroy}
‘INC is a begging Institute’Aurobindo Ghosh (Extremist leader)
‘INC should distinguished between begging and claiming the rights’Bal Gangadhar Tilak (Extremist leader)
‘INC playing with bubbles’Bipin Chandra Pal (Extremist Leader)

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