Important Facts on ‘The Gandhian Era’ of Indian National Movement

Updated December 20, 2022

Each and every fact featured on this page about ‘The Gandhian Era (1917-47)’ is a result of sincere efforts put in by the team These facts are from length and breadth of ‘The Gandhian Era of Indian National Movement/Congress’. Questions asked related to it aim testing your knowledge on modern history and play important roles in making through the exams for Government Jobs.

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The Nitty Gritty of the Gandhian Era

The third and final phase of the Indian National Movement/Congress (1917-1947) is known as the Gandhian era [Gandhian Phase]. Mahatma Gandhi became the undisputed leader of the National Movement during this period . His principles of non-violence and Satyagraha were employed to get India free from the British Government .

Gandhi made the nationalist movement a mass movement. Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi was born at Porbandar in Gujarat on 2 October 1869. He studied law in England and returned to India in 1891. Though Gandhi completed his barrister degree in London, he had been battling to land a work in India, both in Bombay and in his hometown Porbandar in Gujarat.

The career struggle for Gandhi continued for almost one year. However, one fine day he got a call from Abdulla who was his family friend staying in South Africa needed a lawyer who was conversant in Gujarati. In fact, Abdulla had a dispute with his cousin on land related matters. Accordingly, in April 1893 Gandhi went to South Africa primarily for Abdulla’s assignment. It’s a different story though, that he got involved in the struggle of the Racial discrimination against the Blacks for twenty years.

Finally, Gandhi came to India in 1915. Thereafter, he fully involved himself in the Indian National Movement. Mahatma Gandhi began his journey in the Indian National Movement with Satyagraha, a movement against the oppressive European indigo planters at Champaran in Bihar in 1917.

Gandhiji completely dominated the Indian freedom struggle during the period of 1919 to 1948. That is why, this period is known as the Gandhian era in Indian history. During this time, Mahatma Gandhi dominated the Indian National Congress, which in turn was at the forefront of the Indian freedom struggle. Below are some Important and Interesting Facts about ‘The Gandhian Era of Indian National Movement/Congress.

The Gandhian Era of Indian National Movement

Some Important and Interesting Facts about ‘The Gandhian Era of Indian National Movement/Congress’ regarding, the Chronicle Overview of Gandhiji in India and South Africa, Facts about Gandhiji, Major Events during the Gandhian Era, and So on.

Chronicle of Mahatma Gandhi’s Work in South Africa (1869-1914)

1.Departure of Gandhi to South Africa in 1893
2. Foundation of Natal Indian Congress in 1894
3. Foundation of Indian Ambulance Core during Boer wars in 1899.
4. Foundation of Indian opinion (magazine) & Phoenix Farm at Phoenix near Durban in 1904.
5. First Civil Disobedience Movement (satyagraha) against Asiatic Ordinance in Transvaal in 1906.

6. Satyagraha against Compulsory Registration & Passes for Asians (The Black Act) in Transvaal in 1907.
7. Trial & imprisonment -Johannesburg jail (first jail term) in 1908.
8. Foundation of Tolstoy Farm (Later-Gandhi Ashrama) near Johannesburg in 1910.
9. Satyagraha against derecognition of non-Christian marriages in Cape Town in 1913. 10. Quits South Africa forever and returns back to the India, Awarded Kaisar-i-Hind for raising an Indian Ambulance Core during Boer wars in 1914.

A Chronicle on Mahatma Gandhi in India (1915-48)

11. Arrived Bombay (India) on Jan 9, 1915 and foundation of Satyagraha Ashram at Kocharab near Ahmedabad on May 20.
12. Abstain from active politics (though) he attended Lucknow session of INC held in 26-30 Dec, 1916 where Raj Kumar Shukla, a cultivator from Bihar, requested him to come Champaran).
13. Gandhi entered in active politics with Champaran campaign to redress grievances of cultivators oppressed by Indigo planters of Bihar in April 1917. Champaran satyagraha was his first Civil Disobedience Movement in India.

14. In Feb. 1918, Gandhi launched the Struggle in Ahmedabad which involved industrial workers. Hunger strike as a weapon was used for the first time by Gandhi during Ahmedabad struggle. In March 1918, Gandhi worked for peasants of Kheda in Gujrat who were finding difficulties in paying the rents owing to failure of crops. Kheda Satyagraha was his first Non-Cooperation Movement.

15. Gandhi gave call for Satyagraha against the Rowlatt act on April on April 6, 1919 and took command of the nationalist movement for the first time (First all-India Political Movement), Gandhi returns kaisar-i-Hind gold medal to protest against Jallianwala Bagh massacre on April 13, 1919., The all India Khilafat Conference elected Gandhi as its president (Nov. 1919 Delhi).

16. Gandhi leads the Non-Cooperation & Khilafat Movement (Aug.1, 1920-Feb. 1922), Gandhi calls off Movement on Feb. 12, 1922 after the violent incident at Chauri-Chaura on Feb.5 1922. Non-Cooperation Movement was the First mass-based politics under Gandhi.

17. Belgaum (Karnataka) session of INC-for the first and last time Gandhi elected president of the Congress in 1924.
18. Gandhi retires from active politics for the first time & devotes himself to ‘constructive programme’ of the Congress between 1925-1927 and resume active politics in 1927.

19. Gandhi launches the Civil Disobedience Movement with his Dandi March/Salt Satyagraha (First Phase: March 12, 1930- March 5, 1931, Gandhi Erwin pact: March 5, 1931., Gandhi attends the Second-Round table Conference in London as sole representative of the Congress: Sep. 7-Dec 1, 1931., Second Phase: Jan 3, 1932-April 17, 1934)

20. Gandhi retires from active politics, sets up Sevagram (Vradha Ashram) between 1934-39.
21. Gandhi resumes active politics in 1939.
22. Gandhi launches Individual Satyagraha Movement in 1940-41.
23. Call to Quit India Movement for which Gandhi raised the slogan, ‘Do or Die’ (Either free India or die in the attempt), Gandhi & all Congress leaders arrested 9aug. 9, 1942).

24. Gandhi kept in detention at the Aga Khan Palace, near Pune (Aug.9, 1942-May, 1944), Gandhi lost his wife Kasturba (Feb.22, 1944) and private secretory Mahadev Desai, this was Gandhi’s last prison term.
25. Gandhiji’s influence on the Congress wanes perceptively after 1945.

26. Deeply distressed by the of Communal violence, as a result Muslim League’s Direct-Action Call, Gandhi travelled to Noakhali (East Bengal- Now Bangladesh) and later on to Calcutta to restore communal peace in 1946.

27. Gandhi, deeply distressed by the Mountbatten Plan/Partition Plan (June 3, 1947), while staying in Calcutta to restore communal violence, observes complete silence in the dawn of India’s Independence (Aug. 15, 1947). Gandhi returns back to Delhi (Sep. 1947).

28. Gandhi was shot dead by Nathu Ram Godse, a member of RSS, while on his way to the evening prayer meeting at Birla House, New Delhi (Jan. 30, 1948). He died, with ‘Hey Ram’ on his lips.

Facts About Gandhi Ji

29. Gandhi was born on Oct. 2, 1869 at Porbandar in Gujrat. UNO declared Oct. 2 as ‘International Non-Violence Day’ (Antarrashtriy Ahimsa Diwas).
30. His father name is Karamchand Gandhi & mother’s name is Putli Bai. His Political Guru was Gopal Krishna Gokhle & Political Secretory was Mahadevi Desai.

31. John Ruskin’s Unto the Last, Emerson, Thoreau, Leo Tolstoy, the Bible & the Gita had the literary influences on Gandhi.

32. Mahatma Gandhi-by Rabindranath Tagore in 1917, Malang Baba/Nanga Fakir (Naked Saints)- by Kabailis of North-West Frontier in 1930, Indian Faqir/Traitor Faqir-by Winston Churchill in 1931, Half Naked Saint (Ardha Nanga Faqir)-by Franq Mores in 1931 and Rashtrapita (the father of the Nation)-by Subhash Chandra Bose in 1944. These are the other names given to Gandhi Ji.

Main events during Gandhian Era

33. Rowlatt Act (1919), Jallianwala Bagh Massacre (April 13, 1919), Khilafat Movement (1920-22), Non-Cooperation Movement (1920-220, Swaraj Party (1923), Simon Commission (1927), Nehru Committee Report (1928), 14 Points of Jinnah (March 9, 1929), Lahore Session (Dec. 1929), Dandi March/Salt Satyagraha (1930),

The First Round Table conference (1930), Gandhi-Erwin Pact/Delhi Pact (March 5, 1931), The Second Round Table Conference (1931), The Communal Award/Mac Donald Award (Aug. 16, 1932), Poona Pact/Gandhi- Ambedkar Pact (Sep. 25, 1932), The Third Round Table Conference (Nov. 17-Dec. 24 1932), The Government of India Act (1935), Congress Ministries Resin (Dec. 22, 1939),

Pakistan Resolution/Lahore Resolution (March 24, 1940), August Offer/Linlightgow Offer (Aug.8, 1940), Individual Civil Disobedience / Individual Satyagraha (Oct. 1940), The Cripps Mission (March-April 1942), Quit India Movement (1942), Gandhi Ji’s Fast (Feb.10-March 7, 1943), C.R. Formula (1944), Wavell Plan & Conference (June 14 -July 14, 1945),

INA Trial (Nov., 1945), Royal Indian Navy (RIN)/Ratings Mutiny (Feb. 18, 1946), Cabinet Mission (March-June, 1946), Direct Action Campaign (Aug. 16, 1946), Interim Government (Sep.2, 1946), Formation of Constituent Assembly (Dec. 9, 1946), Attlee’s Announcement (Feb. 20, 1947), Mountbatten Plan (June 3, 1947), The Indian Independence Act (1947), Integration of States, French Colonies and Portuguese Colonies were the main events that occurred during Gandhian Era.

The Gandhian Era- in Conclusion

It is more that obvious that Gandhian Era [1917- 47] was the period of National Movement which was greatly influenced by the principles of Gandhi. All the freedom fighters had great respect for Gandhi as he was the tallest figure of the movement for the said period. Despite opinion differences with many other leaders Gandhi managed to move ahead.

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