Updated December 20, 2022
When we talk about Early-Medieval Period then it is important to know “Which period is considered as Medieval Period?”. Period lasted from the 5th to the 15th century considered as the medieval period or Middle Ages in the history of Europe. It began with the fall of the Western Roman Empire and merged into the Renaissance and the Age of Discovery. This is not such a small topic. It is too vast to wind up in a paragraph or article but we have tried to present you every important facts and information about Early-Medieval Period in best possible way, so that, you could get benefited of reading this article on Early-Medieval Period. To know more about Early-Medieval period, do follow the below article and keep visiting the site Career101.in to get such more important topics of Medieval India.
Period from the 6th century, the “first half of the 7th century” or the 8th century up to the 16th century is considered as Medieval period. It may be divided into two periods: The ‘early medieval period’ which lasted from the 6th to the 13th century and the ‘late medieval period’ which lasted from the 13th to the 16th century, ending with the start of the Mughal Empire in 1526. The Mughal era, from the 16th century to the 18th century, is often referred to as the early modern period, but is sometimes also included in the ‘late medieval’ period. The Mughal Empire was the world’s largest economy during this period.
Historians typically regard the Early Middle Ages or Early Medieval Period and sometimes referred to as the Dark Ages lasting from the 5th or 6th century to the 10th century. They marked the start of the Middle Ages of European history. The alternative term “Late Antiquity” emphasizes elements of continuity with the Roman Empire while “Early Middle Ages” is used to emphasize developments characteristic of the earlier medieval period. As such the concept overlaps with Late Antiquity, following the decline of the Western Roman Empire, and precedes the High Middle Ages (11th to 13th centuries).
Some Important facts and Information about the Early-Medieval Period (650-1206) related to North India (Rajputa Period) and South India (Cholas & Others). Facts that could help you in enhancing your Medieval History Knowledge.
I. North India (Rajputa Period)
1. After Harshvardhan, the Rajputas emerged as a powerful force in Northern India and dominated the Indian political scene for nearly 500 years from the 7th century.
2. Here is the list of 10+ Important Rajputa Kingdom along with their capitals and founder mentioned below in the table.
|Sl. No||Important Rajputa Kingdom||Capital||Founder|
|1||Chauhan / Chahaman of Delhi-Ajmer …… 7th century-1192||Delhi||Vasudeva|
|2||Pratihara / Parihara of Kannauj ….730-1036||Avanti, Kannauj||Nagabhatt I|
|3||Pawar / Parmar of Malwa….709-1150||Ujjain, Dhar||Seak II ‘Sri Harshna’|
|4||Chalukya / Solanki of Kathiyawar ……942-1187||Anihalvada||MularajaI|
|5||Rashtrakuta of Malkhand …….752-973||Malkhand / Manyakheta||Dantidurg (dantverman II)|
|6||Chandela of Jejakabhukti. ………831-1202||Khajuraho, Mahoba, Kalinjar||Nannuk Chandela|
|7||Kalchuri Haihaya of Chedi ………850-1211||Tripuri||Kokkala I|
|8||Gadhawal / Rathore of Kannauj…… 1090—1194||Kannauj||Chandradeva|
|9||Tommar of Surrounding areas of Haryana & Delhi||Dhillika||………….|
|10||Guhilota / Sisodia of Mewar …… 8th Century-1930||Chittor||Bappa Rawal, Hammir I|
3. Towards the close of the 8th Century AD, there were three great power in India, the Palas in the East, the Gurjar- Pratihara in the North & the Rashtrakutas in the Deccan.
4. The tripartite struggle for the supremacy among the Palas, Pratiharas and Rashtrakutas was the important event of these centuries.
4.The main cause for his struggle was the desire to posses the city of Kannauj (Farrukhabad Distt., Up) which was then a symbol of sovereinity.
The Palas (750-1150)
5. Capital of the Pala empire was Muddagiri / Munger (Bihar).
6. Gopala founded the Pala empire in 750 A.D.
7. His son Dharmpala (770-810) succeeded him. Dharmpala revived Nalanda University.
8. He founded the Vikramshila University.
9. The Pala dynasty was succeeded by Sena dynasty of Bengal. Jayadeva (‘Gita Gobinda’) was the great court poet of Luxman Sen.
The Pratiharas (730-1036)
10. The pratiharas are also called Gurjara-Pratiharas probably because they originated from Gujarat of South-West Rajasthan.
11. Bhoja / Mihir Bhoja (836-882) was the greatest ruler of this dynasty.
12. He was a devotee of Vishnu and adopted the title of ‘Adivarah’.
The Rashtrakutas (752-972)
13. Dantidurg (752-973) who fixed his capital at Malkhand / Malkhed (Gulbarga distt., Karnatka), founded the Kingdom.
14. The greatest Rashtrakuta ruler were Govinda III (793-814) and Amoghvarsha (814-878). Amoghvarsha ruled for 64 years but by temperature he preferred pursuit of religion and literature to war. He was himself an author and wrote Kavirajamarga which the eariest Kannada book on Poetics.
15. The famous rock-cut temple of Shiva at Elora was built by one of the Rashtrakuta kings Krishns I.
Other Important rulers
16. Prithviraj Chauhan (1178-92) ruled over Delhi & Agra and fought two important battles, namely First battle of Tarrain was fought in 1191 between the forces of Prithviraj Chauhan and Mohammad Ghori in which the latter was defeated. Second Battle of Tarrain was fought in 1192 when Mohhamad Ghori again invaded India in which Prithviraj Chauhan was defeated and captured and later on slain. The Kingdom of Delhi fell to Mohhamad Ghori.
17. The Battle of Tarrain had great significance in the Political scene as they led to eastablishment of Muslim rule over North India and Subsequently in the South for several centuries.
18. Jaichand Gadhawal / Rathore (1169-94) was the last Rajputa King who was also defeated and killed by Mohhamad Ghori in Battle of Chandawar (1994).
19. Rana Kumbha, the sisodiya ruler of Mewar (1433-68) was the famous ruler of Mewar. He defeated Mohhammad Khilji and erected the Tower of victory (Kriti Stambha) in Chittor. His successor Rana Sangam Singh (Rana Sanga) and Rana Pratap were also great kings of Mewar state.
20. Salient features of Rajputa Kingdoms: The country remained free of invasions but loose foreign contact. The caste system was rigid. The Rajputas were proud; warlike people but hospitable. Culturally many great fortresses and temples were built by them such as Khajuraho (MP), Lingaraja temple (Bhubaneshwar, Orissa), Sun temple (Konark, Orissa), The Jagannath temple (Puri), Dilwara temple (Mount Abu).
21. Decline of Rajputas: Lack of unity and foresightedness, the caste system, and defective military organization were some of the cause for the downfall of the Rajputas.
II. South India (Cholas & Others)
Some facts and Information about Cholas and other Dynasties of South India during Early-Medieval Period.
The Chola Dynasty (850-1279 AD)
22. Capitals of Chola Empire were Tanjore and Gangaikondacholapuram.
23. The founder of the Chola dynasty was Vijayalaya who was at first a feudatory of the Pallavas. He captured Tanjore in 850 AD.
24. The greatest Chola rulers were Rajaraja (985-1014 AD) and his son Rajendra I (1014- 1044 AD).
25. Rajendra built Vrihadeshwar / Rajarajeshwar temple (attributed to Shiva) at Tanjore.
26. Rajendra I conquered Orissa, Bengal, Burma and Andaman & Nicobar-islands. The chola dynasty was its zenith during his reign.
27. Rajendra I assumed the title of Gangaikondachola and built a city called Gangaikondacholapuram,
28. The last ruler of Chola dynasty was Rajendra III.
Other Kingdoms of South
29. List of other Kingdoms of south are presented in the table below, along with their capitals and real founders.
|Western / Later Chalukyas (973-1200)||Kalyani, Karnatka||Tillap II|
|Kakatiyas (1110-1326)||Wrangal, Andhra pradesh||Prolaraja II|
|Yadavas (1187-1312)||Devagiri, Maharashtra||Bhillam V|
|Hoyasalas (1173-1342)||Dwarasamudra, Karnatka||Vittigadev ‘Vishnuvardhna’|