Updated December 20, 2022
The period between 1206 A.D. and 1526 A.D. in India’s history is known as the Sultanate period (Delhi Sultanate Period). During this period of over three hundred years, five dynasties ruled in Delhi. These were: The Slave dynasty (1206-90), Khilji dynasty (1290-1320), Tughlaq dynasty (1320-1413), Sayyid dynasty (1414-51), and Lodhi dynasty (1451-1526). Its not easy to sum up the whole topic of Sultanate Period in a paragraph or article just because there is lot to know and discuss about Sultanate Period. So, we have tried to bring you the whole topic of Sultanate Period in best possible way. We have put the most significant point in our article, so that you can get maximum benefits out of it. Do follow the below article to know more about Sultanate Period and keep visiting the site Career101.in to get such more important and interesting topics.
Amazing Facts and Information about Sultanate Period (1206-1526) related, Different Dynasties during Sultanate Period (Delhi Sultanate Period) viz. The Slave dynasty (1206-90), Khilji dynasty (1290-1320), Tughlaq dynasty (1320-1413), Sayyid dynasty (1414-51), and Lodhi dynasty (1451-1526). These are the Facts You Must Know from an examination Point of View.
I. The Delhi Sultanate
The Delhi Sultanate refers to the five short-lived Muslim kingdoms of Turkic and Pashtun (Afghan) origin that ruled the territory of Delhi between 1206 and 1526 CE. In the 16th century, the last of their line was overthrown by the Mughals, who established the Mughal Empire in India.
The Back Ground of Delhi Sultanate
1. The first Muslim invader who invaded India was Mohhamad Bin Qasim in 712 AD.
2. The first Turkish invader who invaded India was Mahmud Ghaznavi in 1025 AD.
3. The second Turkish invader who invaded India was Mohhamad Ghori between 1175-1206 AD.
4. Lack of unity and organization in Rajputs, absence of central government, scattered & small kingdoms and better organizations of Turks were the reasons for the success of Turks in India.
The Delhi Sultanate (1206-1526 AD)
5. Mohhamad Ghori’s conquest became the nucleus of a new political entity in India-the Delhi Sultanate. This period can be divided into 5 distinct period namely, (i). The Slave Dynasty (1206-90), (ii). The Khilji Dynasty (1290-1320), (iii). The Tughlaq Dynasty (1320-1414), (iv). The Sayyid Dynast (1414-51), (v). The Lodhi Dynasty (1451-1526).
The Slave Dynasty (1206-90)
Nine rulers of Slave Dynasty who ruled during the period of 84 years are: Qutubuddin Aibak (1206-10), Shamsuddin Iltutmish (1211-36), Ruknudin (1236), Razia Sultana (1236-40), Bahram Shah (1240-42), Masud Shah (1242-46), Nasirudin Mahamud (1246-66), Ghiyasudin Balban (1266-87) and Kaiqubad (1287-90).
Qutubuddin Aibak (1206-10)
6. A Turkish slave by origin and was purchased by Mohhamad Ghori who later made him his Governer. After the death of Ghori, Aibak became the master of Hindustan and founded the Slave Dynasty in 1206. For his generosity, he was given the title of Lakh Baksh (giver of Lakhs).
7. He died in 1210 while playing Chaugan or Polo.
Shamsuddin Iltutmish (1211-36)
8. He was a slave of Qutubuddin Aibak and occupied the throne of Delhi in 1211 after deposing Aram Baksh.
9. He was very capable ruler and is regarded as the ‘real founder of Delhi Sultanate’. He made Delhi the capital in place of Lahore.
10. He saved Delhi Sultanate from the wrath of Chengij Khan, the Mongol leader, by refusing shelter to Khwarizm Shah whom Chengij Khan was chasing.
11. He was son of Iltutmish and was crowned by her mother ‘Shah Turkan’ after death of Iltutmish. He was deposed by Razia, daughter of Iltutmish when he was out of capital to curb a rebellion in Avadh against him.
Razia Sultana (1236-40)
12. though Iltutmish had nominated his daughter Razia as the successor, the nobel placed Ruknuddin Firoz on the throne. However, Razia got rid of Ruknuddin and ascend the throne.
13. She was the first and only Muslim lady who ever ruled India.
Bahram Shah (1240-42)
14. After Razia, Iltutmish’s third son Bahram shah was put on throne by powerful Turkish council Chalisa.
15. He was considered only as de jure ruler, while Naib-e-mamlakat (the regent) was de factor ruler.
Masud Shah (1242-46)
16. He was the son of Ruknuddin but was disposed after Balban and Nasiruddin Mahamud’s mother Malika-e-Jahan conspired against him and established Nasiruddin Mahamud as the new Sultan.
Nasirudin Mahamud (1246-66)
17. He was the son of Iltutmish and was known as the Darvesi King as he was very pious and noble. He died in 1266.
Ghiyasudin Balban (1266-87)
18. Balban ascended the throne in 1266.
19. He broke the power of Chalisa and restored the prestige of the crown. That was his greatest contribution towards the stability of the Sultanate.
20. A grandson of Balban was established on the throne by Fakruddin, the Kotwal of Delhi who assumed high political authority during the last days of Balban. But Kaiqubad was killed by Khiliji family, which saw end of Slave Dynasty and beginning of khiliji Dynasty.
The Khilji Dynasty (1290-1320)
Four rulers of Khiliji Dynasty who ruled during the very short period of 30 years are: Jalaludin Khilji (1290-96), Alaudin Khilji (1296-1316), Mubarak Khan (1316-20) and Khusrau Khan (1320).
Jalaludin Khilji (1290-96)
21. Jalaluddin Khilji founded Khilji Dynasty.
Alaudin Khilji (1296-1316)
22. He was a nephew and son-in-law of Jalaluddin Khilji. Alauddin Khilji killed him and succeeded the throne in 1296.
23. He was the first Turkish Sultan of Delhi who separated religion from politics. He proclaimed ‘Kingship knows no Kinship’.
Mubarak Khan (1316-20)
24. After the death of Kafur, Mubarak khan was freed from prison and worked as regent for Shihabuddin. He captured the throne at the first opportunity he got but could rule only for a year as he sank into debauchery and could not give up his dissipated lifestyle. He awarded his lover Mubarak hassan authority over army and palace guards who soon obtained full control over Sultan’s palace. Mubarak Hassan was given the title Khushrau khan by Sultan and within months Khusrau killed Mubarak khan and assumed the title of Nasiruddin in mid-1320.
Khusrau Khan (1320)
25. Khusrau Khan was killed by Ghaji Malik, governor of Dipalpur, when he tried to oppose rebellion by Ghaji Malik and his son Fakhruddin Jauna. This bought the end of Khilji Dynasty and rise of Tughlaq dynasty at the throne of Delhi.
Tughlaq dynasty (1320-1414)
The Tughlaq Dynasty lasted for almost 100 years which is bit longer than the of Slave Dynasty (1206-90), and the Khilji Dynasty (1290-1320). Three rulers of Tughlaq Dynasty who ruled during the period of 96 years are: Ghiyasuddin Tughlaq (1320-25), Mohhamad-bin Tughlaq (1325-51) and Firoj Shah Tughlaq (1351-88).
Ghiyasuddin Tughlaq (1320-25)
26. Khusrau Khan, the last king of the Khilji Dynasty was killed by Ghaji Malik and Ghaji Malik ascended the throne assuming the title Ghiyasuddin Tughlaq.
27. He died in an accident and his son Jauna (Ulugh Khan) succeeded him under the title Mohhamad-bin-tughlaq.
Mohhamad-bin Tughlaq (1325-51)
28. Price Jauna, son of Ghiyasuddin Tughlaq ascended the throne in 1325.
Firoj Shah Tughlaq (1351-88)
29. He was a cousin of Mohhamad-bin-Tughlaq. After his death the nobles and theologians of the court selected Firoz Shah as the next sultan.
30. After his accession Firoz Shah Tughlaq was faced with the problem of preventing the imminent break up of Delhi Sultanate. He adopted the policy of trying to appease the nobility, the army and theologians and of asserting his authority over only such areas, which could be easily administered from the centre. He therefore made no attempt to re-assert hi/ authority over South India and Deccan.
After Firoj Shah Tughlaq (1388-1414)
31. The Tughlaq dynasty would not survive much after Firoj Shah’s death. The Malwa, Gujrat and Sharqi (jaunpur) kingdoms broke away from the Sultanate.
32. Timur, a Turk invaded India in 1398 during the reign of Muhhamad Shah Tughlaq, the last ruler of Tughlaq Dynasty. His army mercilessely sacked and plundered Delhi. Timur returned to Central Asia, leaving a nominee to rule to Punjab which ended the Tughlaq Dynasty.
Sayyid dynasty (1414-51)
Four rulers of Sayyid Dynasty who ruled during the very short period of 37 years are: Khizr Khan (1414-21), Mubarak Shah (1421-34), Muhhamad Shah (1434-43) and Alam Shah (1443-51)
Khizr Khan (1414-21)
33. Timur,s nominee captured Delhi and was proclaimed the new Sultan and the first of Sayyid Dynasty. They ruled over Delhi and surrounding districts.
Mubarak Shah (1421-34)
34. He succeeded Khizr at the throne after his successful expeditions against Mewatis, Katehars and the Gangetic Doab area. He was killed by the nobles in his own court
Muhhamad Shah (1434-43)
35. The nobles put Muhhamad Shah on the throne but could not survive the in-fighting among the nobles in the court. He was authorized to rule meagre area of around 30 miles and rest of the Sultanate was ruled by nobles.
Alam Shah (1443-51)
36. The last sayyid king descended in favour of Bahlol Lodhi and himself retired. Thus began the Lodhi dynasty, which confined to Delhi and a few surrounding areas.
Lodhi Dynasty (1451-1526)
Three rules of Lodhi Dynasty who ruled during the period of 75 years are: Bahlol Lodhi (1451-88), Sikandar Lodhi (1489-1517) and Ibrahim Lodhi (1517-26)
Bahlol Lodhi (1451-88)
37. Bahlol Lodhi was one of the Afgan sardars who established himself in Punjab after the invasion of Timur.
38. He founded the Lodhi Dynasty.
Sikandar Lodhi (1489-1517)
39. Sikandar Lodhi was the son of Bahlol lodhi who conquered Bihar and western Bengal.
40. He shifted his capital from Delhi to Agra, a city founded by him.
Ibrahim Lodhi (1517-26)
40. He was the last king of lodhi Dynasty and last Sultan of Delhi.
41. He was the son of Sikandar Lodhi.