Updated December 20, 2022
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Vijayanagar kingdom was one of the important kingdoms in the medieval Indian history which ruled over India for 3 centuries. Vijayanagar kingdom is a history full of wars with Bahamani and other muslim rulers of northern Deccan who were collectively said as Deccan sultanates. The city and its first dynasty were founded in 1336 by five sons of Sangama. Among those five brothers, Harihara and Bukka became the city’s first kings. In time Vijayanagar became the greatest empire of southern India. By serving as a barrier against invasion by the Muslim sultanates of the north, it fostered the reconstruction of Hindu life and administration after the disorders and disunities of the 12th and 13th centuries. Contact with the Muslims (who were not personally disliked) stimulated new thought and creative productivity. Sanskrit was encouraged as a unifying force, and regional literatures thrived. Behind its frontiers the country flourished in unexampled peace and prosperity.
Vijaya-nagara is in Bellary District of northern Karnataka. It is the name of the now-ruined capital city of the historic Vijayanagar Kingdom which was extended over the southern part of India that included the territories of Mysore, Trichinopally, Kanara, Pondicherry, Chingalpet and Kanchivaram.
Two brothers Harihara (Hakka) I and Bukka Raya laid the foundation of the Vijaynagar city which was on the South bank of Tungabhadra River near Anegudi Fortress. They were also known as Sangama brothers as they were sons of Sangama. Vijaynagar Empire consolidated under Harihara I and began to expand and prosper under Bukka Raya which was more defensible and secure for its location between 14th and 16th century. It is said that a sage Madhav Vidyaranya and his brother Sayana were the inspirational source for this empire. The rulers were strict worshipers of the Hindu Gods and Goddess, but also tolerant towards the other religions. The emperors were great patrons of art and culture. The region influenced a development in the streams of music, literature and architecture. Many temples built in the territories of the south represent the style of Vijaynagar kingdom. The economy of the region flourished and several coins were introduced during the reign of the rulers of the Vijaynagar Empire.
Some of the most important and Interesting Points about Vijayanagar Kingdom, Bahamani Kingdom, and Other Provincial Kingdoms. These Points Can Change the Dimension of Your Medieval Indian History Knowledge.
Vijayanagar Empire (1336-1565 AD)
1. Vijayanagar kingdom and the city was founded by Harihar & Bukka (sons of Sangama) who were feudatories of Kakatiyas and later became the minister in the court of Kampili.
2. Vijayanagar Kingdom lay in the Deccan, to the South of Bahmani Kingdom.
3. Vijayanagar period can be divided into four distinct dynasties namely, Sangama, Saluva, Tuluva & Aravidu
The Sangama Dynasty (1336-1485)
4. Harihara I & Bukka I (1336-56) laid the foundation of Vijaya-nagra. Brahmani conflicts began with the foundation of kingdoms. Clash of interests in three areas: Raichur daob (between Krishna & Tungbhadra), Krishna-Godavari delta and Marathwada.
5. Bukka I strengthened the city of Vidyanagar and renamed it Vijyanagar. He restored harmony between the warring Vaishnavas and the Jains. The Rais of Malabar.
The Saluva Dynasty (1486-1505)
6. Saluva Narsimbha (1486-91) founded the Saluva Dynasty.
7. Tirumal (1491) & Immadi Narsimbha (1491-1505) were minors during the regency of Narsa Nayaka. Da Gama landed in Calicut during this reign in 1498.
The Taluva Dynasty (1505-09)
8. Vira Narsimbha (1505-09), the son of Narsa Nayaka, became the king after the assassination of Immadi Narsimbha, the last Saluva ruler.
Krishna Dev Raya (1509-29 AD)
9. saluva Timma, the chief minister of Vira Narsimbha, placed Krishna Deva Ray, the brother of Vira Narsimbha on the throne.
10. Krishna Deva Raya maintained friendly relations with Albuquerque, the Portuguese governor whose ambassador Friar Luis resided in Vijayanagar. He won Orissa (Gajapati Kingdom) for Vijayanagar and Vijayanagar emerged strongest during his reign.
11. He built the Vijaya Mahal (House of Victory), the Hazara Rama temple and the Vishal Swami temple.
12. He took the titles of Yavanaraja Sthapnacharya (restorer of Yavana Kingdom) and Abhinava Bhoja. He is also known as Andhra Bhoj and Andhara Pitamaha.
The Aravidu dynasty (1570-1650)
13. Tirumala Raya, the brother of Rama Raja, ruled in the in the name of Sadasiva Raya. On his failure to repopulate Vijayanagar, he shifted the capital to Penugonda. He divided his empire into three practically linguistic sections.
14. The Empire slowly shrunk and the Aravidu dynasty ended in 1646.
Bahamani Kingdom (1347-58)
15. Bahamani Hasan Bahaman (1347-58) was also known Hasan Ganga. He founded the Bahamani kingdom with its capital at Gulburga (First capital).
16. Tajuddin Firoz Shah (1397-1422) was greatest among them all. He was determined to make Deccan the culture centre in India. He inducted large number of Hindus in the administration on large scale. He paid much attention to the ports of his kingdom, Chaul and Dabhol which attracted trade ships from Persian Gulf and Red Sea.
17. Ahmad Shah Wali (1422-35) transferred the capital from Gulbarga to Bidar.
Other Provincial Kingdoms
18. list of other provincial kingdoms is mentioned in the table below.
|Jaunpur (Sharqui)||Jaunpur||Malik Sarwar (khwaja Jaha)|
|Malwa||Dhar, Mandu||Dilawar Khan (Ghori)|
|Gujarat||Ahmadabad||Ahmadabad Jafar Ghori|
|Bengal||Lakhnauti, Pandua, Ekdala||Shamsuddin Iliyas Shah|
|Khandesh||Burhanpur & Asirgadh||Malik Raza Faruqui|